Volume 2

Year 2011

1. Du crayon au stylo numérique : influences des IHM à stylo et des interprétations numériques sur l'activité graphique en tâches de conception

Stéphane Safin ; Roland Juchmes ; Pierre Leclercq.
Our research is embedded in the framework of the development of free-hand drawing-based computer assisted architectural design environment. In this paper, we study the activity of drawings duplication, observed during the paper changes in the phase of preliminary sketching. We aim at identifying the impacts of two digital sketches environments, with or without drawings interpretation, on this activity and on the graphical productions. We observe six activities, two with paper-pencil and four distributed on our two prototypes, and draw some operational conclusions for the development of software designed to support the architectural sketches in the preliminary design stage.

2. IHM de Suppléance Sensorielle Visuo-Tactile pour Aveugles et d'Intégration Sensorielle pour Autistes

Hervé Segond ; Stéphane Maris ; Yves Desnos ; Perrine Belusso.
Our research focuses on perceptual and cognitive mechanisms involved in learning procedures in order to develop and validate innovating technologies in the field of health for blind people through the implementation of an embarked version of a Tactile Vision Sensory Substitution device (TVSS) with wireless connections between the three TVSS components (micro camera, coupling system and matrix of tactile stimulators), aesthetically acceptable and allowing an ecological use. Such a device could allow prevention of developmental disorders in blind infants, autonomy for blind people in everyday life (thanks to the implementation of a Human Machine Interface allowing connections between the embarked TVSS device and a Personal Computer with a software development presenting a 3D numerization of the subject's urban environment). A new perspective is proposed in favor of innovating taking care programs for autistic people. The main goal of this project is to allow disabled people to benefit from the scientifically demonstrated efficacy of TVSS devices.

3. La recherche collaborative d'information sur Internet : impact de l'affinité entre les jeunes collaborateurs

Jerome Dinet ; Robin Vivian ; Brigitte Simonnot.
Two experimental studies aim at describing the impacts of pair interaction and affective factors during the process of collaborative search for information on the World Wide Web when end-users are young learners recruited from Grade 3. In three successive sessions, students were asked to find answers to questions related to medieval history on the Internet. In these three sessions, students were asked to find these answers alone (condition "Alone"), or with a friend (condition "Affinity +"), or with another pupil who was not a friend (condition "Affinity -"). Several significant results have been obtained: (1) pairs retrieved effectively more answers, more correct answers, and were more efficient than singles; (2) pairs composed of children without social affinity retrieved more answers, more correct answers and were more efficient than pairs composed of friends; (3) pairs composed of friends produced significantly more irrelevant queries than pairs composed of children without social affinity; (4) pairs composed of children without social affinity are engaged in a great deal of consensus seeking, compared with the pairs composed of friends.

4. Fouille visuelle de données temporelles avec DataTube2

Fatma Bouali ; Frédéric Plantard ; Amina Bouséba ; Gilles Venturini.
Nous nous intéressons dans cet article à la fouille visuelle de données temporelles, où les données ont été mises sous la forme de n attributs dont les valeurs sont enregistrées pendant k instants. Après un état de l'art sur les différentes approches de visualisation de telles séries, nous présentons plus particulièrement une approche ayant reçue encore peu d'attention ("DataTube"). DataTube place les données dans un tube dont l'axe représente le temps. Nous étendons ensuite cette approche : tout d'abord nous définissons plusieurs modes de visualisations (couleurs, formes, etc) et nous ajoutons un axe temporel. Ensuite nous introduisons des interactions avec la possibilité de sélectionner des attributs et des instants, afficher des données complexes ou encore insérer des annotations sur la visualisation. Nous ajoutons une étape de classification non supervisée afin de regrouper dans la visualisation les attributs similaires. Enfin nous intégrons cette visualisation dans notre plateforme de fouille de données en réalité virtuelle VRMiner, avec un affichage stéréoscopique et des possibilités de navigation interactive. Nous appliquons cette visualisation sur plusieurs ensembles de données réelles et nous montrons qu'elle peut gérer jusqu'à 1,5 million de valeurs. Nous présentons également une évaluation utilisateur.

5. Uncertainties in complex dynamic environments

Hasmik Atoyan ; Jean-Marc Robert ; Jean-Rémi Duquet.
The utilization of Decision Support Systems (DSS) in complex dynamic environments leads the human operator almost inevitably to having to face several types of uncertainties. Thus it is essential for system designers to clearly understand the different types of uncertainties that could exist in human-machine systems of complex environments, to know their impacts on the operator's trust in the systems and decision-making process, and to have guidelines on how to present uncertain information on user interfaces. It is also essential for them to have an overview of the different stages, levels, and types of system automation, and to know their possible impacts on the creation of different types of uncertainties. This paper investigates these topics and aim at helping researchers and practitioners to deal with uncertainties in complex environments.