Special Issue "PISTIL"

Special Issue on Persuasive computing

Process of change: states, transitions, and determinants

Alessandro Fenicio ; Yann Laurillau ; Gaëlle Calvary.
The goal of persuasion is to change the behaviour or the attitude of a person without using any form of coercion (Oinas et al. 2010). In the last ten years, several models, approaches and theories have been developed in the research field of persuasion, producing a copious scientific literature. Different reviews of the state-of-the-art focusing on specific aspects have been proposed. Pindel et al. (Pinder et al. 2018) for example analyse the state of the art under the perspective of the mechanisms that lead to the habit forming. In this work, we report a state-of-the-art review on the key elements of the process of change using the concepts of states, transitions, and determinants to propose a common generic paradigm. We conclude with a discussion about the operationalization of persuasive processes and with a comparative analysis on the reviewed theories.

Adaptation for sustainable persuasion

Anthony Foulonneau ; Gaëlle Calvary ; Eric Villain.
Making people change is difficult; making them change for ever is all the more challenging. We explore adaptation as a means for bringing diversity and thereby for killing the annoying effect of persuasive messages. The case study is TILT, a persuasive application dedicated to smartphone usage regulation. We show that adapting persuasion increases efficiency.

Persuasive Context

Anthony Foulonneau ; Gaëlle Calvary ; Eric Villain.
The background of persuasive technologies is the traditional interpersonal persuasion, studied for over two thousand years in rethoric, philosophy, and more recently in psychology. This last discipline offers many theories and models to understand more precisely the processes that influence human behaviors. These theories show in particular that persuasive situations are complex, varied, with many influence factors. Therefore, we propose the notion of adaptive persuasive technologies, i.e. technologies able to adapt their persuasive strategies to the user context. To design such products and services, we propose a model of the persuasive context, i.e. of all the constraints that influence a user’s targeted behavior at a given time. Each constraint in the persuasive context is at the same time an adaptation criterion and an action leverage for the adaptive persuasive technology.

A shape-changing cylindrical chart that displays energy availability forecasts

Maxime Daniel ; Guillaume Rivière ; Nadine Couture.
Optimizing microgrids' renewable-energy-consumption rates can be done by energy demand-side management. Shifting consumption at better moments is possible thanks to storage capacities. To explore this context, we consider a new practice aiming at shifting laptops' consumption on workplaces thanks to their batteries. This practice requires providing usage instructions and forecasts on renewable energy availability. In order to do this, we evaluated the usability of a shape-changing cylindrical histogram, during a two-day public event, by asking 90 visitors. We also tested three kinds of motion speed in peripheral vision in order to notify neither disturbing nor irritating, by requiring 30 participants in lab conditions. Our results show success rates over 90% for range and compare tasks, which are necessary to retrieve renewable energy production peaks. Our results show that an exponential speed is the best to design perceptible movements, whereas being as calm as a constant speed.

Persuasive Systems for Energy: Cartography of Design Spaces and Proposition of the UP+ Framework

Van Nguyen ; Yann Laurillau ; Gaëlle Calvary ; Joëlle Coutaz.
This article reviews surveys, design spaces, and frameworks related to the design of persuasive interactive systems, with a particular focus on energy. We first propose a cartography of these conceptual tools. Most previous work focuses on persuasion principles but is difficult to apply for the software design and engineering of persuasive interactive systems. As a result, we propose UP+, a new framework that synthetizes and revisits existing surveys, design spaces, and frameworks from the software engineering perspective of persuasive interactive systems.

Human-Computer Interaction against climate change: review of a controversy

Guillaume Rivière.
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is a means for Information and Communication Technologies to help facing the climate-change challenge. Researchers have conducted work on this way for two decades. They followed the track of progressive change through persuasion for individual consumption reduction. This track is however seriously discussed, what leads the community to retarget coming research. This paper reviews the main criticisms of the controversy that takes place in the community, and considers a possible track to overcome the problems: a radical change through new social practices.

Ludo-persuasive systems for sustainable consumption: 3 – Analysis of the potential of a ludo persuasive energetic challenge in companies

Bernard Senach ; Anne-Laure Negri.
L'articulation des nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication (NTIC) avec les modèles de changements comportementaux développés dans les Sciences Humaines et Sociales (SHS) joue un rôle de plus en plus important pour le développement durable. Dans les sociétés avancées, il est nécessaire de modifier radicalement nos modes de vie et, dans les sociétés dites émergentes, l'impératif est l'adoption de modes de développement alternatifs. Les NTIC ont ainsi trouvé un champ d'application privilégié dans le contexte de la réduction des consommations énergétiques. Plusieurs challenges énergétiques ont été conduits aussi bien avec le grand public qu'avec les employés d'entreprises. L'évaluation de l'efficacité de ces dispositifs ne dit généralement pas grand-chose de leurs qualités intrinsèques, de leurs défauts, de leurs faiblesses. L'article propose une analyse détaillée des caractéristiques ludo-persuasives du projet Ecoffices, un challenge énergétique basé sur une instrumentation des bureaux qui s'est déroulé sur plusieurs mois au sein d'une entreprise. A l'issue du projet, le bilan des économies d'énergie réalisées a été globalement satisfaisant. Cependant, un certain nombre de faiblesses ont questionné le dispositif sur des points tels que le maintien de l'engagement des participants dans la compétition ou […]

Systèmes ludo-persuasifs pour la consommation durable. 1 -Points de repères et défis à relever

Bernard Senach ; Anne-Laure Negri.
For over 40 years, it is common knowledge that industrial society has to reduce its energy consumption. Most of people are now aware that this change is necessary. However, commitment to action is still difficult and there is substantial work to be done. Attention has turned to Human and Social Sciences, as a deeper understanding of behaviors' determinant and use of influence principles could help to speed up behavior changes. New technical devices combining game design, interaction techniques and persuasion have emerged but the field is still in its infancy. This article gives a glimpse at a toolbox helping to design and evaluate interactive persuasive devices and discuss five main challenges. This work is extended by two others papers: Negri et Senach (2015b) provide a first grid of persuasion principles and in Senach et Negri (2015c), these grid have been applied to assess the persuasive properties of an energy challenge within a company.

Persuasion and Influence: attitude change and behavior change

Valérie Fointiat ; Laura Barbier.
The study of the socio-psychological processes involved in persuasion is onethe pivotal topics in social psychology. Eight decades ago, researchers from Yaleuniversity were the first in studying the mechanism of persuasion in the specificcontext of World War ll. Persuasion is obtained when the receptor of communicationmakes a change in his mind that is when a change in attitude occurs. Logically, such achange in attitude should imply a change in behavior. The research on behavioralchange show that it is not systematically the case. Thus changing what people think isnot changing what people do (or what people will do). This shortcut could biased theconclusions of researches, in the large domain of persuasion as well as in the morerestricted domain of the persuasive technologies. In conclusion, we would like topromote a theoretical, methodological articulation between HMI and social psychology.

Evolution of the heuristic inspection: towards an integration of accessibility, usability, emotion and persuasion?

Eric Brangier ; Michel Desmarais ; Nemery Alexandra ; Sandrine Prom Tep.
This research investigates the issue of conducting heuristic inspections along an extended array of dimensions that includes often ignored considerations such as motivational and persuasive factors. Two objectives are pursued: to offer a comprehensive perspective on the different approaches to heuristic inspections and their evolution in the last decades since their emergence, and to propose an approach that integrates the extended array of heuristic criteria. The motivation for the proposed approach and the issues faced are also discussed.

Experimental validation of persuasive criteria for CHI: analysis of their effectiveness to inspect persuasion in interfaces

Eric Brangier ; Nemery Alexandra ; SCHMITT Séverine.
The objective of this article is to present a study that has been made about the use of the interactive persuasion criteria grid in order to identify persuasiveelements in the interfaces. Two groups have been created, “criteria” and “control”. Both should identify persuasive elements of two interfaces: social network (Facebook) and e-commerce (Cdiscount). During the second phase of the experiment, the “criteria” group had an access to the grid. 27 participants were recruited for this study. The results show that the participants have found more persuasive elements with the grid and that the identification performance was better for the e-commerce website. The average evaluation performance is significantly different (p = 0.000) on the two sites. On Facebook, participants' performance was 9.7% ("control" group) and 23.8% then ("test" group); and for Cdiscount respectively 21.7% ("control" group) and 43.6% ("test" group). The set of guidelines really allows to increase the identification of forms of persuasion in interfaces.

Ludo-persuasive systems for sustainable consumption. : . 2 – Elaboration of a ludo-persuasive principle grid

Anne-Laure Negri ; Bernard Senach.
Ludo-Persuasive Systems (LPS) are systems which are designed with the intent of changing people's behavior or attitude. As highlighted in Senach and Negri (2015a), such systems are based on two converging fields-gamification and persuasive technologies-but their engineering still is in its infancy. In this chapter, the authors build on existing lists of persuasive and gamification principles and integrate the various works ((Fogg, 2003) (Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa, 2009) (Nemery, 2012)) in order to provide a grid that can be seen as a first tool in a LPS toolbox. The proposed grid is to be used both as a design and an evaluation tool. It was tested in the post-mortem analysis of an energy saving challenge described in Senach and Negri (2015b). The paper starts with discussions on the method followed to select, cluster and assess the implementation of the principles; it then defines the ludo-persuasive principles by providing examples and hints for identifying ludo-persuasive indicators.

State of the art in persuasive systems design

Anthony Foulonneau ; Gaëlle Calvary ; Eric Villain.
By their ability to change person's behaviors and attitudes, persuasive technologies appear as promising for overcoming societal challenges. They are based on theories and models from cognitive psychology and social psychology. The earlier works on persuasive technologies, by Fogg, identified many persuasive principles to influence user's behaviors and attitude, and thus useful for building persuasive systems. Studies on persuasive technologies also bring design methods, architectures, persuasive interfaces, and experimentation in numerous domains. The grand challenge is now to adapt persuasion to the complexity and versatility of each individual, thereby maximizing the persuasive effectiveness. We still have to build plastic persuasive technologies.

Persuasive Technology and Energy: critical analysis of the state of the art

Grégory Cano ; Yann Laurillau ; Gaëlle Calvary.
This paper presents a state of the art and an analysis of existing works dedicated to persuasive technologies for energy consumption. Thanks to a systematic analysis, a set of concepts of persuasion has been identified and organized into a six dimensional design space. In particular, the concept of persuasion function is identified and defined. Six persuasion functions are identified: Mirror, Explain, Recommend, What-if, What-for, Suggest-and-Adjust. This design space is used to characterize the works considered in this state of the art.